Jun 26, 2013

Can your child’s diet boost her intelligence?

When it comes to your child’s brainpower, it seems that both nature and nurture play a role. Louise Fulton Keats looks at how your toddler’s intellectual ability can be affected by the foods you put on her plate.

Many of us think our intelligence is something we’re born with, passed down by our parents and set in concrete. While it’s true that genetics play a part, in recent years, we’ve learned that diet also plays an important role in shaping our cognitive ability.

Scientists have identified five dietary factors that are important when it comes to brain function. Knowing about these can help you give your child the best start to life when it comes to all aspects of her mental development, including her learning, language, memory, attention span, problem solving and, as she grows, her performance at school.

Omega-3 fats 

Omega-3s make up a significant proportion of the human brain, so it’s no surprise that they have a big impact on our cognitive ability. Studies have found that children whose mums ate plenty of ate plenty of fish* – such as omega-3 rich salmon and sardines – during pregnancy have overall better language skills and higher IQs. Similarly, there is evidence that children who have omega-3-rich diets tend to have better cognitive development. In fact, scientists think it’s the high concentration of these fats in breastmilk that probably explains why breastfed babies have often been found to outdo their peers on intelligence tests. Breastfeeding mums can boost the omega-3 levels of their milk by eating foods such as eggs, oily fish and linseed. Once your baby starts solids, you should include these foods in his diet to help support his rapidly growing brain.

Nutrient
Adequate / recommended intake
Source
Omega-3 fats
Pregnant women: 115 mg/day
Breastfeeding women: 145 mg/day
Children 1-3 years: 40 mg/day
1 egg = 76mg  (omega-3 enriched = 126mg)
5g chia seeds = 966 mg
50g tinned sardines  = 1215 mg
100g tinned salmon = 2106 mg 

Iron 

Iron deficiency is one of the most common nutrient deficiencies in the world. The World Health Organization estimates that 8% of Australian pre-schoolers have iron-deficiency anaemia, and it’s likely that the rates of milder iron deficiency are much higher. Because iron is used to make the brain chemicals that regulate your child’s ability to pay attention, being deficient can make him less motivated to persevere with mentally demanding tasks. It can also impair her overall cognitive development. There have been studies showing that treating children with iron deficiency anaemia increases their IQ. To avoid a deficiency, mums should make sure they’re getting enough iron during pregnancy and children should be given plenty of iron-rich foods from weaning onwards. Good sources include red meat, chicken thigh and leg meat (which contains about twice as much iron as the breast fillet), liver (not for suitable for pregnant women) and legumes.

Nutrient
Adequate / recommended intake
Source
Iron
Pregnant women: 27 mg/day
Breastfeeding women: 9 mg/day
Babies 7-12 months: 11 mg/day
Children 1-3 years: 9 mg/day
1 egg = 2 mg
100g tinned red kidney beans = 2 mg
100g cooked steak = 3 mg
100g English spinach = 3.5 mg**
100g cooked chicken liver = 11 mg

Iodine 

In Australia, iodine deficiency has been another widespread problem, which is why the Government has made it compulsory for manufacturers to use iodised salt in bread. The relationship between iodine deficiency and cognitive function is well established. One review of 18 scientific studies found an overall 13.5-point difference in IQ between iodine-deficient and iodine-sufficient children. Sources of iodine include seafood, seaweed, dairy products, bread and iodised salt (although there are important health reasons to minimise your child’s salt intake).

Nutrient
Adequate / recommended intake
Source
Iodine
Pregnant women: 220 mg/day
Breastfeeding women: 270 mg/day
Babies 7-12 months: 110 mg/day
Children 1-3 years: 90 mg/day
100g green beans = 20 mg
100g cooked snapper fish = 40 mg
200ml cow’s milk = 46 mg
1 egg = 47 mg
100g cooked mussels = 268 mg

Breakfast 

It’s something we’ve all heard before, but breakfast really is the most important meal of the day. A number of studies have shown that children who eat breakfast have better concentration and attention spans and perform better at school. On the other hand, those who miss their morning meal are more likely to be irritable, tired, restless and easily distracted. In a recent study of almost 1400 school children, it was found that those who hadn’t eaten breakfast performed 7% to 10% worse on a range of various attention and memory tests.

One reason why breakfast is so critical is that a child’s brain metabolises glucose about twice as fast as an adult’s. So after a night’s sleep without food, a child’s brain really needs some fuel. Choosing a nutritious breakfast with a low glycaemic index – such as porridge – is best as the slow energy release will give her brain a steadier flow of glucose, making it easier for her to learn new things.

Overall nutritious diet 

Having an overall healthy diet is also an important brain booster for children. One study found that children who had eaten higher amounts of fruits, vegetables and home-cooked meals during infancy (ie, 6-12 months) had a higher IQ at four years old. Another found that children who had eaten a healthy diet (with more rice, salad, fruits and pasta) at three years old had a higher IQ when tested at eight years old, compared with children eating lots of processed foods with a high fat and sugar content.

Although we’ve always known that eating well is good for children’s physical wellbeing, we now also know it’s good for their brains. Given that your child’s brain grows at its fastest rate during her first three years of life, it’s the best possible time – during pregnancy, breastfeeding and those early years – to be thinking about her diet and how you can enhance it to nurture her extraordinary mind.

*Although fish can be a great source of omega-3 fats and iodine, unfortunately some species contain high levels of mercury. Species to watch out for are orange roughy (also known as sea perch), catfish, shark (also known as flake) and billfish (also known as swordfish, broadbill and marlin). You should avoid giving your baby any of these high-mercury species and certainly no more than once a fortnight. **Despite having a relatively high iron content, spinach is not one of the best sources of iron because its fibre and oxalate content binds to the iron and hinders its absorption into the body (this also occurs with other vegetables). Nevertheless, it does contain plenty of other nutrients which make it an excellent healthy choice for your child.

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